BARBADOS PUBLIC WORKERS’ CO-OPERATIVE CREDIT UNION LIMITED | CONSOLIDATED ANNUAL REPORT 2021 58 BARBADOS PUBLIC WORKERS’ CO-OPERATIVE CREDIT UNION LIMITED Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements For the year ended March 31, 2021 (Expressed in Barbados dollars) 31 2. Accounting Policies, continued (n) Recognition of income and expenses Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue and expense are recognised: Interest income and expense Effective interest rate Interest income and expense are recognised in profit or loss using the effective interest method. The ‘effective interest rate’ is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument to: – the gross carrying amount of the financial asset; or – the amortised cost of the financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate for financial instruments other than purchased or originated credit-impaired assets, the Group estimates future cash flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument, but not ECL. For purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets, a creditadjusted effective interest rate is calculated using estimated future cash flows including ECL. The calculation of the effective interest rate includes transaction costs and fees and points paid or received that are an integral part of the effective interest rate. Transaction costs include incremental costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of a financial asset or financial liability. Interest income and expense, continued Amortised cost and gross carrying amount The ‘amortised cost’ of a financial asset or financial liability is the amount at which the financial asset or financial liability is measured on initial recognition minus the principal repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortisation using the effective interest method of any difference between that initial amount and the maturity amount and, for financial assets, adjusted for any expected credit loss allowance. The ‘gross carrying amount of a financial asset’ is the amortised cost of a financial asset before adjusting for any expected credit loss allowance. Calculation of interest income and expense The effective interest rate of a financial asset or financial liability is calculated on initial recognition of a financial asset or a financial liability. In calculating interest income and expense, the effective interest rate is applied to the gross carrying amount of the asset (when the asset is not credit-impaired) or to the amortised cost of the liability. The effective interest rate is revised as a result of periodic re-estimation of cash flows of floating-rate instruments to reflect movements in market rates of interest. However, for financial assets that have become credit-impaired subsequent to initial recognition, interest income is calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset. If the asset is no longer credit-impaired, then the calculation of interest income reverts to the gross basis.