115 BARBADOS PUBLIC WORKERS’ CO-OPERATIVE CREDIT UNION LIMITED | CONSOLIDATED ANNUAL REPORT 2021 BARBADOS PUBLIC WORKERS’ CO-OPERATIVE CREDIT UNION LIMITED Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements For the year ended March 31, 2021 (Expressed in Barbados dollars) 92 25. Financial Risk Management, continued 25.5 Operational risk Operational risk is the risk of direct or indirect loss arising from a wide variety of causes associated with the Group’s processes, personnel, technology and infrastructure, and from external factors other than credit, market and liquidity risks such as those arising from legal and regulatory requirements and generally accepted standards of corporate behaviour. While operational risk is inherent to each of the Group's business activities, the exposure is minimised by ensuring that the appropriate infrastructure, controls, systems and human resources are in place. Key policies and procedures used in managing operating risk involve a strong internal audit function, segregation of duties, delegation of authority, and financial and managerial reporting. Within the Group, mitigation of operating risk is assigned to senior management supported by a welldefined organisational structure that segregates operational and administrative functions. Back-up capabilities are also maintained to ensure on-going service delivery in adverse circumstances. In addition, periodic reviews are undertaken by the Internal Audit department. The results of the reviews are discussed with the management of the business unit to which they relate, senior management and the Board of Directors. 26. Fair Value Fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date and is best evidenced by a quoted market price, if one exists. Financial assets and liabilities are carried at amounts, which approximate to their fair value at the statement of financial position date. Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based on market conditions and information about the financial instrument. These estimates are subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment and therefore, cannot be determined with precision. Changes in assumptions could significantly affect the estimates. For financial assets and financial liabilities that are liquid or have short term maturity, it is assumed that the carrying amounts approximate their fair value. These include cash resources, other assets and other liabilities. The fair value of debt securities is based on quoted prices where available, or otherwise based on an appropriate yield curve with the same remaining term to maturity. The fair value of loans and advances largely approximates carrying value as the Group's portfolio comprises mainly variable rate loans. The fair value of deposits takes account of certain fixed rate deposits which have been discounted at current interest rates.